Explain Iterative model of Testing:

An iterative lifecycle model does not attempt to start with a full specification of requirements. Instead, development begins by specifying and implementing just part of the software, which can then be reviewed in order to identify further requirements. This process is then repeated, producing a new version of the software for each cycleof the model. Consider an iterative lifecycle model which consists of repeating the following four phases in sequence:

Start -> Requirements <-> Design <-> Implementation & Test <-> Review -> Complete

Requirements phase, in which the requirements for the software are gathered and analyzed. Iteration should eventually result in a requirements phase that produces a complete and final specification of requirements. – A Design

phase, in which a software solution to meet the requirements is designed. This may be a new design, or an extension of an earlier design.

– An Implementation and Test phase, when the software is coded, integrated and tested.

– A Review phase, in which the software is evaluated, the current requirements are reviewed, and changes and additions to requirements proposed.

For each cycle of the model, a decision has to be made as to whether the software produced by the cycle will be discarded, or kept as a starting point for the next cycle(sometimes referred to as incremental prototyping). Eventually a point will be reached where the requirements are complete and the software can be delivered, or it becomes impossible to enhance the software as required, and a fresh start has to be made.

The iterative lifecycle model can be likened to producing software by successive approximation. Drawing an analogy with mathematical methods that use successive approximation to arrive at a final solution, the benefit of such methods depends on how rapidly they converge on a solution.

The key to successful use of an iterative software development lifecycle is rigorous validation of requirements, and verification (including testing) of each version of the software against those requirements within each cycle of the model. The first three phases of the example iterative model is in fact an abbreviated form of a sequential V or waterfall lifecycle model. Each cycle of the model produces software that requires testing at the unit level, for software integration, for system integration and for acceptance. As the software evolves through successive cycles, tests have to be repeated and extended to verify each version of the software.

 

 

What is Web Testing?

Web Testing in simple terms is checking your web application for potential bugs before its made live or before code is moved into the production environment.

During this stage issues such as that of web application security, the functioning of the site, its access to handicapped as well as regular users and its ability to handle traffic is checked.

Web Application Testing Checklist:

Some or all of the following testing types may be performed depending on your web testing requirements.

1. Functionality Testing :

This is used to check of your product is as per the specifications you intended for it as well as the functional requirements you charted out for it in your developmental documentation.Testing Activities Included:

Test all links in your webpages are working correctly and make sure there are no broken links. Links to be checked will include –

Outgoing links

Internal links

Anchor Links

MailTo Links

Test Forms are working as expected. This will include-

Scripting checks on the form are working as expected. For example- if a user does not fill a mandatory field in a form a error message is shown.

Check default values are being populated

Once submitted , the data in the forms is submitted to a live database or is linked to an working email address

Forms are optimally formatted for better readability

Test Cookies are working as expected. Cookies are small files used by websites to primarily remember active user sessions so you do not to log in every time you visit a website. Cookie Testing will include

Testing cookies (sessions) are deleted either when cache is cleared or when they reach their expiry.

Delete cookies (sessions) and test that login credentials are asked for when you next visit the site.

Test HTML and CSS to ensure that search engines can crawl your site easily. This will include

Checking for Syntax Errors

Readable Color Schemas

Standard Compliance.Ensure standards such W3C, OASIS, IETF, ISO, ECMA, or WS-I are followed.

Test business workflow- This will include

Testing your end – to – end workflow/ business scenarios which takes the user through a series of webpage’s to complete.

Test negative scenarios as well , such that when a user executes an unexpected step , appropriate error message or help is shown in your web application.

Tools that can be used: QTP , IBM Rational , Selenium

2. Usability testing:

Usability testing has now become a vital part of any web based project. It can carried out by testers like you or a small focus group similar to the target audience of the web application.

Test the site Navigation:

Menus , buttons or Links to different pages on your site should be easily visible and consistent on all webpages

Test the Content:

Content should be legible with no spelling or grammatical errors.

Images if present should contain and “alt” text

Tools that can be used: Chalkmark, Clicktale, Clixpy and Feedback Army

3.Interface Testing:

Three areas to be tested here are – Application , Web and Database Server

Application: Test requests are sent correctly to the Database and output at the client side is displayed correctly. Errors if any must be caught by the application and must be only shown to the administrator and not the end user.

Web Server: Test Web server is handling all application requests without any service denial.

Database Server: Make sure queries sent to the database give expected results.

Test system response when connection between the three layers (Application, Web and Database) can not be established and appropriate message is shown to the end user.

Tools that can be used: AlertFox,Ranorex

4.Database Testing:

Database is one critical component of your web application and stress must be laid to test it thoroughly. Testing activities will include-

Test if any errors are shown while executing queries

Data Integrity is maintained while creating , updating or deleting data in database.

Check response time of queries and fine tune them if necessary.

Test data retrieved from your database is shown accurately in your web application

Tools that can be used: QTP

5. Compatibility testing.

Compatibility tests ensures that your web application displays correctly across different devices. This would include-

Browser Compatibility Test: Same website in different browsers will display differently. You need to test if your web application is being displayed correctly across browsers , javascript , AJAX and authentication is working fine. You may also check for Mobile Browser Compatibility.

The rendering of web elements like buttons , text fields etc changes with change in Operating System. Make sure your website works fine for various combination of Operating systems such as Windows , Linux , Mac and Browsers such as Firefox , Internet Explorer , Safari etc.

Tools that can be used: NetMechanic

6.Performance Testing:

This will ensure your site works under all loads. Testing activities will include but not limited to –

Website application response times at different connection speeds

Load test your web application to determine its behavior under normal and peak loads

Stress test your web site to determine its break point when pushed to beyond normal loads at peak time.

Test if a crash occurs due to peak load , how does the site recover from such an event

Make sure optimization techniques like gzip compression , browser and server side cache enabled to reduce load times

Tools that can be used: Loadrunner, JMeter

7. Security testing:

Security testing is vital for e-commerce website that store sensitive customer information like credit cards.Testing Activities will include-

Test unauthorized access to secure pages should not be permitted

Restricted files should not be downloadable without appropriate access

Check sessions are automatically killed after prolonged user inactivity

On use of SSL certificates , website should re-direct to encrypted SSL pages.

Tools that can be used: Babel Enterprise, BFBTester and CROSS

8.Crowd Testing:

You will select a large number of people (crowd) to execute tests which otherwise would have been executed a select group of people in the company. Crowdsourced testing is an interesting and upcoming concept and helps unravel many a unnoticed defects.